Temperament as a factor determining the adaptive capability and health reserve in children and adults
Introduction. Currently, the actual problem of the study is the identification of the role of temperament, due to the individual characteristics of the nervous system, in the adaptation of the body to the environment. The available term «adaptation range» originates from assessment of functional system capability to change its characteristics to provide homeostasis during adaptation processes including the change of behavioral modes. The purpose of the article is to reveal and assess integrated indices of the efficiency of adaptive responses and the health reserve in young subjects and in junior schoolchildren with different temperamental features.
Methodology (materials and methods). The study is based on the approaches of E.Yu. Petrosyan, Yu.I. Savchenkov to the notion of temperament properties, plasticity of temperament properties. For determining temperamental features, we used a Russian variant of the Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS) A. Thomas and S. Chess, adapted by a research group from Novosibirsk: V.G. Kolpakov, V.F. Chugui, V.V. Makarov. The identifcation of temperament types was conducted by the behavior index (BI), which includes such temperament features as activity, sensitivity (threshold), mood and intensity, and by the behavior stereotype strength index (BSSI), which is the sum of quantitative indices of rhythm and adoptability (E.Yu. Petrosyan, Yu.I. Savchenkov). To assess the efficiency of adaptation responses, we studied the heartrate variability (HRV) by tachography using a Valenta hardware-software system at rest and during a clinoorthostatic test. The calculation of the integrated health reserve index (HRI) for the comprehensive health diagnosis was performed using the Khelmi-Test-2000 software package (V.P. Kulikov, L.E. Bezmaternykh, S.D. Kozlov). We have performed a study of adaptive responses and organism conditions using the peripheral blood WBC differential in junior schoolchildren with different manifestation of temperamental features by V.A. Kopanev’s method adapted for pediatrics by S.A. Vyborova.
Results. This article contains the research results for heart rate variability, integrated index of health in young healthy persons and nonspecific resistance in junior schoolchildren with different temperamental feature manifestations. It has been determined that persons with different temperamental feature manifestations characterizing the behavioral activity have specific autonomic regulation of functions, which is a factor responsible for differences in the expression and efficiency of adaptive responses and, thus, for different health levels. Conclusions. The results of the study demonstrate the relationship of personality temperament traits with the standard and reserve of health, identify the mechanisms underlying psychosomatic relations in children and adults.